History of Maldives - Tareek
of Linguistics and Historical Research
Malé, MaldivesFirst printing 1981, second printing
translated by Maldives
Culture editors with assistance from Majid Abdul-Wahhab
5 October 2005
The regency of Mariyam
Kabafan during the reign of Little Mohamed 1687-1692
|'A man in his life
may have had eighty wives and more... In like manner
the wives have a vast number of husbands but, far
from being imputed to them for any kind of blame,
they are prouder the oftener they have changed husbands
and when they are courted they tell the number, names
and quality of their former husbands as a high recommendation.
Nor are they less esteemed by their gallants but rather
more, and less is thought of one who is still a virgin
than of one who is no longer so, except it be by the
king and the great lords. Yet, despite this common
changing, you will find men and women who remain for
a long time together, by reason that they love and
cherish each other more than all the world.'
Pyrard, resident in Male'
This young king
was only six years old and his title was Sultan Mohamed,
Siri Mani Ran Loaka Maharadun. Ministers and courtiers came
and ran the affairs of the monarchy from the security guards'
gate. The treasury keys were in the hands of the courtiers,
and the king's mother and servants were not allowed more
than they needed. The courtiers were affectionate towards
the king and ran the monarchy well. They stayed alert and
did things properly on his behalf, but his mother began
scheming and after a short time she convinced Fulhadhoo
Bodu Bandeyri Kaleygefan to join her group.
Together they persuaded Devadhoo Fandiyaru Kaleyfan to join
their conspiracy. Then they distributed money to the leaders
of the soldiers. The plan was to remove the ministers and
courtiers, leaving Mariyam Kabafan with the monarchy.
The group gathered at the palace and listened to Mariyam's
grievances. She complained that Fenfushi Velana Takurufan
and his followers were making life difficult for the king
and each month there was barely enough allowance money.
'We cannot go on,' she said. 'They give a month's allowance
that can only last 20 days. We cannot go on like this.'
The soldiers supporting the king's mother jumped up and
began to speak. After a heated argument, Fenfushi Velana
Takurufan was dragged out and exiled to Thinadhoo island
on Huvadhu atoll. All his property was seized and taken
to the treasury, and the king's mother became the regent.
She was the daughter of a concubine from Hindustan and was
openly immoral. Lusting after Mohamed Famuladeyri Kilegefan,
the son of King Iskandhar's maternal brother Hassan Fashana
Kilegefan, she demanded his presence but he would not obey.
Angrily, she summoned her guard and ministers, and told
them that Mohamed Famuladeyri was trying to usurp the monarchy.
He was exiled to Fua Mulaku.
Mariyam Kabafan made her brother Ali the new prime minister
and he seized the wife of Mohamed Famuladeyri. She was Mariyam,
the daughter of Fenfushi Velana Takurufan. Mariyam Kabafan
also gave ministerships to her other brothers, Ibrahim and
Esa. Then she married someone and he received the Doshimeyna
Kilege title. After that, her daughter married the son of
Thakandhoo Bandeyri Ali. Her sister, Lady Aisha, married
Fulhadhoo Bodu Bandeyri Kaleyge.
Mariyam Kabafan selected a number of attractive young men.
They were treated as junior ministers but their real purpose
was to attend to her special bodily needs and they took
no part in the administration. Even in the presence of her
husband, these junior ministers were allowed to discuss
anything with her, without hindrance. The husband was under
this lady's power and as weak as a cuckold. He dare not
Men who had been ministers during the earlier reign of king
Iskandhar, men like Umar Dhaharadha Kaleyfan the son of
Fonadhoo Mohamed Fandiyaru Kaleyfan, and Ahmed Vazir Kaleyfan
the instructor in the use of the lance, and Fasmandhoo Hassan
Hakura Takurufan, all these men were weak and in her power.
They were ministers in name only.
Each morning and evening, fourteen and fifteen year old
boys from the noble families were gathered at the palace
and made to play games and sing love songs. Once or twice
every year, Mariyam would go on an official tour. During
these trips, men and women could mingle without restraint,
playing games and singing romantic songs. Property was seized
in the name of gift-offerings.
Apparently this noblewoman and her followers treated religious
scholars badly, and immoral behaviour was practised in front
of them just to annoy them. Many scholars were unable to
tolerate the situation and left Maldives. Among those who
departed were Hassan Tajudeen who was the student of Fonadhoo
Kateeb Takurufan, and Malin Adana. They both went to Malabar.
In Calicut they boarded a ship for Mecca and performed haj.
They visited Medina, and performed umra. Malin
Adana died in Mecca.
Similarly, other members of the Male' aristocracy went to
the Ali Rajah in Cannanore.
Some of Mariyam's maternal brothers visited other people's
wives on Male' and assaulted people. Chief Minister Ali
Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan caused trouble by asking for Amina
Kabadi Kilegefan, the wife of Kateeb Takurufan. The husband
prayed to Holy God, and Allah listened and a virulent disease
afflicted the chief minister. The affliction was so virulent
that his lower legs and penis burst open and due to the
bad smell, people would not go near him. He could not recover
from this disease and he couldn't die either, until he had
received the forgiveness from the husband, Kateeb Takurufan.
Only then did Ali die.
When king Mohamed reached maturity, he disapproved of the
actions of his mother's brothers, and he loved the children
of his father's relatives but there was no male among them
except for Mohamed Manikfan who had been exiled to Fua Mulaku.
King Mohamed had him brought to Male' and kept him in Maafannu
Athiree palace. The king treated him well, and his mother's
siblings disapproved of this.
Then on 15 January 1691, Hassan Tajudeen returned to Male'.
The king's mother had intended to let her son bring Tajudeen
back into Male', but Fulhadhoo Bodu Bandeyri Kaleyfan put
a stop to this. He said that if Tajudeen was allowed to
return, he may combine with others and revolt. Hassan Tajudeen
was kept aboard his vessel in the hot sun for two days while
it was moored in front of the fort watchtower inside the
harbour wall. Tajudeen's teacher Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan
was not allowed to visit his dhoani, nor were any
of his former students, nor any relatives. After this, Tajudeen
was exiled to Gan island on Haddhumathi atoll.
Half way through the following month of February, the people
who had gone to Cannanore seeking help from the Ali Rajah,
arrived at Thiladhunmathi atoll in a caravel. They took
captives in Thiladhunmathi and punished them; tying them
up and stealing their property. When this news reached the
king and his mother, the ministers and armed forces gathered
and the caravels and large odi were launched. The
army and ministers' supporters loaded their weapons into
the boats and sailed for Thiladhunmathi.
When the enemy saw the sails of the approaching Male' vessels,
they quickly fled in their ships. The king's men fired guns
and chased after them. Later the victors returned to Male'.
When the king's mother heard about the success of her armed
forces, she prepared herself to make an official short voyage
to meet them and left in a large odi, covered against
the sun, with her special attendants and the king. They
sailed happily out to meet the army. On their way back,
everyone had spent the night at Bandos island and the men
and women there had a great time.
Next day when the sun rose, people were continuing to celebrate
as the decorated royal odi anchored at Dhoonidhoo
island. Guns were fired from the odi, a spark from
one of the wick holes dropped into a container of gunpowder.
It caught fire and the flames spread underneath the shade
awning. The fire grew and the awning collapsed. In an explosion,
people were thrown into the air and their bodies were cut
and burnt as they dropped back onto the ship and into the
sea. The remains of the odi burnt and sank.
The king was still alive but his mother had been obliterated.
Following behind, the undamaged caravels and dhoani
raced to the area where the royal odi had exploded.
Some survivors were rescued though they were seriously burnt,
but others were dead and their bodies were taken away. The
king's mother and her special friends could not be found,
but the young king was rushed onto land and treated. Very
few survived among the burn victims and the king died of
his injuries. This event occurred on the morning of 27 March
1691. The king was only 10 years, 11 months and six days
old, and he had reigned for four years, one month and 19
King Mohamed Muhiyudeen
Mariyam's surviving relatives were
her ministers Ibrahim and Esa. She also had a daughter married
to a son of Fonadhoo Mohamed Fandiyaru Kaleyfan. Some of
the aristocracy felt that this daughter's husband should
be given the kingship, but Umar Daharada Kaleyfan, the son
of Fonadhoo Mohamed Fandiyaru Kaleyfan, and Haji Ali Navin
disagreed and they were supported by the elders and members
of the army. They all gathered at the house of Fonadhoo
Kateeb Takurufan. They pledged to install Mohamed Manikfan
as king. He was the son of King Iskander's maternal brother
Hassan Fashana Kilegefan. The next day, all the people gathered
at the palace and said they would only give the kingship
to a descendent of Kaba Aisha. And in that line there was
a mature man, Mohamed Manikfan, the son of Hassan Fashana
Kilegefan who was the son of Lady Aisha. That lord was now
brought forward and placed on the throne.
The king's title was Sultan Mohamed Muhiyudeen, Siri Nakarai
Sundura Bavana Maharadun. He was generous, fair and patient
and kind to scholars. The exiled Hassan Tajudeen was brought
back from Gan and treated with honour. He was paid 50 laari
a month and accommodated in Male'.
Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan
also made a dignified return to the palace. He sat on a
large wooden bench bed and from there he was told to preach.
Kateeb Takurufan began by reciting a verse from the Koran
and after his preaching finished, the town crier was sent
out to give the following instructions:
|'Bhang, an admirable
herb, grows in many places of this coast as also in
Bengal; but Ganga is brought from the island of Sumatra,
and is often sold at very high rates. It is a thing
that resembles hemp seed and grows after the same
manner, but the other is of a larger leaf and gross
Ganga being of a more pleasant operation, much addicting
to venery (old English word meaning 'the pursuit of
or indulgence in sexual pleasure'), is sold at five
times the price the other is. They study many ways
to use it, but not one of them that fails to intoxicate
them to admiration.
Sometimes they mix it with their tobacco and smoke
it, a very speedy way to be besotted; at other times
they chew it, but the most pleasant way of taking
it is as follows: pound or grind a handful of the
seed and leaf together, which is mixed with one pint
of fresh water, and let it soak near one quarter of
an hour or more, then strain through a piece of calico
or what else is fine, and drink off the liquor, and
in less then half an hour its operation will show
itself for the space of four or five hours.
And it operates according to the thoughts and fancy
of the party that drinks thereof, in such manner that
if he be merry at that instant, he shall continue
so with exceeding great laughter for a long time,
rather overmerry, laughing heartily at everything
they discern; and, on the contrary, if it is taken
in a fearful or melancholy posture, he shall keep
great lamentation and seem to be in great anguish
of spirit, taking away all manly gestures or thoughts
I have often seen these humours experienced in Bengal.
One for instance: Eight or ten of us (Englishmen)
to try the practice, we would need drink every man
his pint of bhang, which we purchased in the bazaar
of the value of 6 pence English money. I ordered my
man to bring along with him one of the faqirs (moslem
holy men) who frequently drink of this liquor, promising
him his dose of the same to come and compound the
rest for us, which he cordially and freely accepted
of, and it was welcome to him as a crown in English
We drank each man his portion, and sent the faqir
outside, and made fastened all doors and windows,
that none of us might run into the street, or any
person come in to behold any of our humours thereby
to laugh at us.
The faqir sat outside the street door, calling us
all kings and brave fellows, fancying himself to be
at the gates of the palace at Agra, singing to that
purpose in the Hindustan language.
It soon took its operation upon most of us, but merrily,
save for two of our number, who I suppose feared it
might do them some harm not being accustomed thereto.
One of them sat himself down upon the floor and wept
bitterly all afternoon; the other terrified with fear
stuck his head into a great Mortavan jar and continued
in that posture 4 hours or more; four or five of us
lay upon the carpets that were spread in the room,
highly complementing each other in high terms, each
fancying himself no less than the Emperor.
One was quarrelsome and fought one of the wooden pillars
of the porch, until he had left himself little skin
upon the knuckles of his fingers. Myself and one more
sat sweating for the space of three hours in exceeding
Taste it has not any, in my judgement less than fair
water, yet it is of such a bewitching sottish nature,
that whoever use it but one month or two cannot forsake
it without much difficulty.'
'A Geographical Account of the Countries Round the
Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679'
- Do not drink alcohol.
- Do not eat opium.
- Do not commit adultery.
- Women must wear the face-covering veil.
- Women must give way to men on the street.
- The wells and baths at the mosques must be cleaned.
- Mosques must give the call to prayer five times
a day, and people must join the congregation.
All this took place on the same day, 4 April 1691. The king
established these rules as a tradition in Maldives.
Other changes made by the king included men being permitted
to wear shirts, turbans and sandals. Before that, kings
had forbidden these clothes and footwear to all except the
judges and Male's two chiefs. The king also gave his assent
to anyone who wanted to go to the haj. Previously
this had been illegal for commoners.
During Mohamed's reign, the number of scholars increased
and with the assistance of the king, they were respected.
Atoll chiefs were told to make the new laws and prohibitions
universally known and judges in the islands were advised
accordingly. The people's taxes were reduced, and the king
proclaimed that if a dead person had no heir or agent, then
that person's property would be distributed to orphans or
the poor. Prior to this, if there was no heir or agent,
the government would confiscate the property.
While Mohamed ruled,, senior officials were like friends
to the common people. During maulood ceremonies,
they wouldn't even take a lemon, chili or banana from the
banquet. The public lived a relaxed life and they called
the monarch 'a kind king'. He acted this way solely due
to the advice of Mohamed Sirajudeen Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan
and his student Hassan Tajudeen.
The king then sent a letter to the Qadiri missionary Sayyid
Kaleyfan, in which was written:
'Just as you prayed to holy God, the throne of Maldives
has been divinely granted to me. I very much wish to see
you again and I await your arrival here.'
Sayyid Kaleyfan was able to come to Maldives and he arrived
very early in the sailing season. At the time, the king
was extremely sick. Sayyid was treated with honour and ceremoniously
greeted in Male'. Three days after his arrival, the king
died on 17 February 1692. He had reigned for slightly less
than a year and was buried beside Little King Mohamed.
King Sayyid Kaleyfan
After this, the noble Sayyid Kaleyfan
ascended to the throne, supported by two hadith that praise
the eternal pre-eminence and leadership of the Quresh tribe
from Mecca. Sayyid was proclaimed king at a consensus meeting
on 18 February 1692, and his name became Sultan Mohamed
Shamsuddheen Hamavee. His authority was established and
he seemed destined to be a patient, generous, just, pious,
ascetic, wise and scholarly king. Religious rules were circulated,
traditional customs were abolished if deemed contrary to
sharia, and prayer-time had to be attended regularly.
Each night, he preached between prayer times at dusk and
late evening. After the late prayer, he taught various subjects
to Devadhoo Fandiyaru Takurufan, Mohamed Sirajudeen Fonadhoo
Kateeb Takurufan, Hassan Tajudeen and others.
From the time of the sighting of the new moon in Rajab until
the end of Ramazan, Hassan Tajudeen was assigned to teach
the hadith between the dusk and late evening prayer-times
at the Friday mosque. He was paid 100 laari a month. Each
Friday, following the afternoon prayer, Hassan Tajudeen
would walk through the island streets with his officials
and the government floggers. They proclaimed religious laws
and banned non-Islamic practices. Anybody seen doing forbidden
things was flogged and ordered to abandon their behaviour.
If a required prayer was omitted, a person could be summoned
to the palace into the king's presence and beheaded by the
sword of the sharia. After three Fridays, everybody
was attending all required prayers.
One day during the fasting month, the king went to the Friday
prayer and noticed the mosque was full, with people standing
outside. He said when the fasting month was finished, a
larger mosque would be built, but on the sixteenth day of
Ramadan he caught a fever and had diarrhoea. Needing a nurse,
he married king Muhiyudeen's widow, Mariyam Kabafan. The
ailment went from bad to worse and he died in the afternoon
between the noon and afternoon prayer-times on 9 July 1692.
The king was buried beside the grave of Sayyid Murutala
from the Syria/Iraq region that lay on the western side
of the tomb of the Tabriz holyman. Sayyid Kaleyfan had reigned
for four months and twenty-five days.
Most of the aristocracy decided Fonadhoo Kateeb Takurufan
should be king and they sent for him. He disliked the idea,
and along with his wife and children he secretly embarked
after the sunset prayer and went to live in Fonadhoo island
on Hadunmati atoll.
The Devadhoo king, Mohamed ibn Haji Ali Tukala 1692-1701
After the kateeb left Male', some ministers went
secretly to see Devadhoo Fandiyaru Kaleyfan and decided
he would be king. They concealed their plans and waited,
and four months went by as their support grew. At the time,
Mariyam Kabafan, the widow of both king Muhiyudeen and the
Sayyid, was in the royal palace. After the required mourning
period of four months, it was decided she would marry someone
the judge. She would not agree to marry him because he was
too old. The judge's supporters realised that things might
get difficult for them if they left the palace under her
control until she got married. They gathered at the judge's
house and money was distributed. He promised to give them
a further 200,000 laari after winning the throne.
They all left the courthouse together and entered the royal
palace before dawn. The leaders among them were minister
Mohamed Amanu, Bilehfahee Ibrahim Ranahamadi Kaleygefan,
Ali Dhahara Takurufan the son of Gamu Moosa, and minister
Ali the brother of Fandiyaru Kaleyfan's wife. Accompanied
by the judge, these people tied up Mariyam Kabafan's father
Fenfushi Velana Takurufan and other people with him. They
captured the monarchy and Fandiyaru Kaleyfan sat on the
When daylight arrived, guns were fired and official drums
were beaten. Hassan Tajudeen arrived and made a lot of promises
that the new king would govern justly. These promises established
a consensus and the rest of the people began to support
the new king. Then Mariyam Kabafan emerged and kissed both
his feet and requested amnesty. The king extended his pardon
to the royal lady and her family and treated her with respect.
He looked after her in her palace and they got married.
The captives were released and high positions given to those
who had supported the judge's bid for the monarchy.
French map of South
India showing ports and their controllers
Guillaume de Lisle, 1723
Carte des Cotes de Malabar et de Coromandel
Mulee Mohamed Aman was
given a ministership and the position of chief treasurer.
Isdhoo Ali Takurufan became a minister. He was the brother
of Kadeeja Kaba, Fandiyaru Kaleyfan's wife. This Ali's father
was Isdhoo Ibrahim Velana Takurufan. The son of the daughter
of the king's aunt was made the minister of health. He was
called Ibrahim Famuladeyri Takurufan. He was also made the
head trainer at the armoury. Two hundred thousand laari
was distributed among the armed forces.
The new king's name was Sultan Mohamed ibn Haji Ali Tukala.
His title in Dhivehi was made official: Siri Kularanmani
Maharadun. This king was pious, scholarly and kind. He had
been a magistrate for fourteen years. The king spent treasury
money on the scholars and many were trained. Every Aashura
day many laari coins and rufiyaa notes and gold coins were
distributed, and people who owed money received help with
their repayments. Hearing about this, people in debt would
come from Hindustan and Malabar. After they had received
enough to repay their debts, they went off happily. The
mosques built by previous kings were restored and new mosques
were built here and there. Waqf previously removed,
were returned, and taxation greatly reduced.
During this period the people were in a happy and well-off
state. Many ships came from Surat, Hindustan and Acheh.
It was forbidden to sell coir rope, fish and cowrie shells
directly to foreigners. All these things had to be brought
to the treasury and sold to the foreigners from there. The
government bought rice at a special low price without import
tax. The foreign minister and treasurer were given permission
to receive 15,000kg of rice from each ship arriving from
overseas. These two men exercised their right that year
and in following years the amount they received increased
and included not only rice but other things as well. The
public had to buy almost everything from them.
a ruler governs considerately, devoid of wrong-doing,
better it is than even a united army; for a smaller
force, if contented, and even infidels, would overcome
a greater force which groans under the rule of injustice.
In the hadith it is said: If a ruler treats
his subjects unjustly, his kingdom will be taken by
the 'Treatise of Advice to Sovereigns' in the first
section of an older copy of the Tareek translated
in HCP Bell, 'The Maldive Islands'
In spite of all
this, people enjoyed a life of plenty. Hassan Tajudeen was
made judge on the seventh day of the king's reign on Wednesday
12 November 1692. Before accepting the position he extracted
a promise from the king that the monarch would strictly
adhere to his judgements. Then Tajudeen prohibited the sale
of independent women and their employment as unpaid slaves.
Before this, the aristocracy made people work without payment,
and sold them just like slaves. If anyone held as a slave
appealed to Hassan Tajudeen, he instructed that the person
be released and a symbolic payment be made to the owner.
If a person was bonded by debt, the accounts were checked
and any outstanding debt was paid by the treasury. For the
first time in Maldives, Hassan Tajudeen declared that the
ownership of independent people as slaves was a forbidden
and sinful act.
He gave homeless orphans the right to inherit deceased people's
The use of swords and daggers to avenge adultery was banned.
Regarding this practice, the public was instructed to accept
the judgments of the court where evidence was taken and
floggings carried out. Due to embarrassment from public
exposure, adultery ceased. It was also prohibited for women
to avenge adultery by cutting off another woman's hair or
tearing her dress. By decree, offerings for maulood recitations
were limited to twelve laari.
The king's wife, Kadeeja Kabafan died. She was the daughter
of Isdhoo Velana Takurufan. After her death, people were
sent at her grave to recite prayers for four months and
ten days. Huge ceremonies took place. The king married Sanfa
Kabafan, the daughter of Hussein Takurufan who was the son
of Isdhoo Ibrahim Velana Takurufan. A year later, this queen
became pregnant and immediately afterwards the king became
While he was ill, Kurendhoo Ali Kateeb Takurufan and Isdhoo
Ali Velana Takurufan went to see the king and told him a
story that made him furious with his maternal sister and
her son Ali Kateeb Takurufan and her husband Ibrahim Famuladeyri
Takurufan. Instructions were given that this family was
to be banned from the king's presence. The king had intended
to pass on the crown to Ali Kateeb Takurufan. While those
people were banned, Kurendhoo Ali Kateeb Takurufan, Isdhoo
Velana Takurufan and Sanfa Kabafan stayed beside the king
until his death. When he passed away, Ali Velana Takurufan
came out and said he had heard the king's command that his
royal sister, her son, her husband and Rannabadeyri Takurufan
and his mother were all to be exiled in Devadhoo. This was
done. After they left Male', the people were informed that
the king had died.
Hassan Tajudeen bathed and dressed the king for burial,
and next day the monarch and Kadeeja Kabafan were buried
in a tomb built on the western side of the Friday mosque.
The king had died on 16 January 1701. He had reigned for
eight years nine months and ten days. After the funeral,
the aristocrats, ministers and officials went to the royal
palace and Sanfa Kabafan distributed one hundred gold coins
among them. Then fifty thousand laari was allocated to the
The noblewoman did this on the advice of Ali Velana Takurufan.
Five days after the king's death, she also gave permission
for Hassan Tajudeen to leave with his wife and children
for Mecca. Sanfa Kabafan had labour pains four days later
and Ali Velana Takurufan brought along a person who wrote
on a plate and then dissolved the writing with water before
mixing in a deadly poison. It was given to Sanfa and she
drank it. Sanfa died after giving birth.
King Ali Shah Bandar
of Isdhoo 1700-01
Velana Takurufan ascended to the
throne on 25 January 1701. He was called Sultan Ali ibn
Vazir Ibrahim Shah Bandar, and his koli name was
Siri Kularanmuiy Maharadun. His paternal brother Ibrahim
Takurufan the son of Hassan Mafaiy Takurufan, was made the
foreign minister. Beru Muskulhi Kaleyge became minister
for health. Kurendhoo Ali Kateeb Takurufan, who had never
studied anything, was given the chief judge position.
The king was short and dark, hard-hearted, cruel and ignorant.
He was a snob who showed no compassion or care for anyone.
He wore gold jewellery and silk clothing, and humiliated
scholars and loved uneducated company. The learned Abdul
Hakeem Eduru Kaleygefan was intimidated and kept in an inferior
position. However, Almighty God very quickly restored him
to a place of honour when death closed in upon the king.
The monarch had ordered a 30 metre odi to be built
so he could send a letter to Said, the son of Mecca's Shareef
Zaid. In that letter he intended to say that Hassan Tajudeen
had left Male' with a lot of treasury goods and that Tajudeen's
gifts to Said were the property of the king. But the odi
was only half built when the monarch died on 25 October
1701. He had reigned for nine months and nine days.
King Hassan 1701
On the day he died, his son Hassan
obtained the consensus to be made king. He was thirteen
years old. It was the will of the dying king that his son
be given the kingship, and promises were made by Velana
Takurufan and Beru Muskulhi. The new king was called Sultan
Hassan ibn Sultan Ali Shah Bandar.
Intending to capture the throne, Velana Takurufan said to
king Hassan, 'Beru Muskulhi Kaleygefan is trying to marry
your father's widow Kabafan and take over the throne.' Hassan
believed this and exiled Famuladeyri Kaleygefan to Fua Mulaku.
After a short while, Abdul Hakeem
Eduru Kaleygefan and Bodu Bandeyri Takurufan the son of
Thakandhoo Khazin Ali Bodu Bandeyri Takurufan, and Fasmandhoo
Hassan Hakura Takurufan thought about the situation and
all agreed to give the kingship to Ibrahim Velana Takurufan.
Abdul Hakeem said formally to the aristocracy and ministers:
'King Hassan is not a mature person. The kingship is not
appropriate for him. You should break any promises you made
to give him the kingship.' Everyone was very pleased to
hear Abdul Hakeem speak in this way and Velana Takurufan
was made king. He was called Sultan Ibrahim Muzhirudeen.
In Dhivehi language his name was Siri Mutheiras Loaka Maharadun.
He gave 100,000 laari to the armed forces, and many things
were given to Abdul Hakeem and his students. Hakeem became
the king's advisor.
During king Ibrahim's reign, the dethroned king Hassan was
honourably treated. He sat to eat at the same table as the
king and his status was not challenged. Abdul Hakeem became
chief judge and the new king recalled his maternal brother
Hassan Manik who had been sent away to Fua Mulaku, and gave
him the official title of chief minister. His other maternal
brother Hussein Manik became foreign affairs minister. Another
maternal brother was too young for a position. The king's
cousin was Mohamed Manik who was the defence minister during
the reigns of kings Sayyid and Muhiyudeen. After King Sayyid's
death, he had voluntarily resigned and stayed in Dhiyamigili
island on Raa atoll. Mohamed Manik was summoned and made
defence minister again. His father Ibrahim Manik had held
the same position during the lifetime of the Devadhoo king.
As mentioned above, before he died king Ali had started
to build an odi for a trip to Mecca. King Muzhirudeen
completed the vessel. He wrote a letter of good tidings
to Hassan Tajudeen and sent it to Mecca. Haji Kasim was
made the captain of the odi. Hassan Tajudeen was
in Mecca when the Devadhoo king died Muzhirudeen sent a
letter asking him to return to Male' quickly. Tajudeen came
back with his wife and children and when he arrived in Male',
the king treated him with respect.
King Muzhirudeen was very kind and affectionate to the people.
The tax collected from cowrie shells was reduced by a sixth.
Since the Friday mosque was not facing Mecca correctly,
another Friday mosque was built beside the large bathing
tank. The Hand-chopping mosque was renovated and a ship
was purchased for the voyage to Arabia. Four ocean-going
vessels were built as well. They were launched and prepared
for travel, then loaded with coconuts, coir rope and cowrie
shells. Eighty big guns from the fort bastions were taken
aboard with the appropriate ammunition and gunpowder. Kadoodhoo
Fathma Kabafan had given birth to the king's young son and
she was there breast feeding. The king announced that the
young son would have the kingship and the mother would be
the regent in his absence.
Look at the shortness of this king's memory! Hassan, the
son of this same king's uncle king Ali, had lost the throne
at the age of fourteen because he was too young. Now king
Muzhirudeen was giving the monarchy to a breast-feeding
infant. Mohamed Doshimeyna Takurufan the son of Dhiyamigili
Ibrahim Doshimeyna, was made the chief of the armed forces.
The king left for the haj just after sunset on
Friday 18 January 1704. He took along the ex-king Hassan
and Hassan Tajudeen, as well as the chief judge and the
king's older brother Hassan Handeygiri Manik. The ship and
four odi sailed off.
While they were moored at Rasdhoo island harbour, a slave
freed by the Devadhoo king came up to the stern of the ship
on a little raft. He was a negro Yagooth Doshimeyna Kaleygefan
from Badidhoo island. At that time he was wearing one piece
of cloth around his waist and on his head was a torn and
thread-bare turban. The king told him to get on board and
gave him some good clothing. He was treated kindly and it
was formally arranged for him to stay with the royal son.
He was sent to Male'. Yagooth had been exiled to Badidhoo
by king Hassan.
The king left Rasdhoo and when he arrived in Jidda, Suleiman
Basha came and asked the king to land there. He disembarked
at Jidda and went to Mecca and performed the haj.
Then Handeygiri Manikfan died, along with one of the king's
wives. The party decided to cancel their trip to Medina
and leave quickly for Male'. Abdul Hakeem died and he was
buried in the Jidda cemetery on the right side of the gate
that people pass through when they leave for Mecca.
Saudi Arabia, Red Sea,
and Socotra island
died people died from among the five hundred men and women
who accompanied the king. They sailed from Jidda just after
sighting the new moon on 4 June 1704. The king caught smallpox
and stopped at Mocha for water. A person who was staying
there, Amir Sheikh Salihu Al-Hareeree, helped to load the
water. He was a member of a Sunni Shafi sect. As the king
prepared to leave, Sheikh Salihu said it was the period
when the rain and storms were strongest and for wise people,
the appropriate thing to do was stay there until the end
of the season. They ignored this advice, and sailed off
after midday on 26 June 1704.
They had just sailed past Socotra island when storms hit.
The masts were broken and a plank gave way in the purchased
ship during these devastating storms. After the tempest
cleared, the ship's sails were torn and the mast was broken
and floating on the water. When the wind had died right
down, they raised a piece of timber for a new mast and improvised
with a repaired sail. The wind was blowing from the south
and before dawn on nineteenth day of their voyage, they
were washed up at a place called Nava Bandar. With the ship
about to flounder, some people jumped into the sea and swam
to the beach. Others drowned. Those who reached the shore
included the king, ex-king Hassan, Tajudeen, and Haji Kasim
the navigator plus a few of the armed guards.
There were infidel robbers where they landed, and everyone
on the beach lost their waistcoats and were left with loin
cloths. The survivors travelled on, naked, starving and
barely breathing. At Surat they received food, water, and
clothing. Every odi, except one, was wrecked and
damaged in different places. That intact odi had
been strongly built and it arrived back in Male' harbour
with news that storms had hit the fleet and they had been
separated and wrecked. When the population of Male' heard
people had been killed in wild weather, they thought the
king had also drowned at sea.
The king's maternal brother Hussein Velana Manikfan decided
to remove his elder brother's son and the boy's mother from
the palace. He gave the order, and mother and son were expelled.
Hussein Velana Takurufan instructed some of the armed men
to exile the negro Yagooth Doshimeyna Kaleygefan. Yagooth
appealed the decision but to no avail. A soldier called
Utheemu Sarangey ran to catch him but Yagooth had a sword
in his hand. He hacked at Sarangey and the soldier fell.
The armed forces chased him with swords, guns and lances.
Yagooth ran to the Eid mosque, and then to the beach and
along the harbour wall. The armed forces ran along the beach
after him. Desperate, the negro lord came back onto land
and ran towards the men with the sword in his hand. They
ran away, ducking, and just mananged to avoid his attack.
Yagooth ran into an area of thick screwpine bush and his
pursuers searched unsuccessfully for him there, so they
lit a fire but Yagooth escaped. The next day a ship from
Bengal sailed away and it is believed Yagooth was secretly
aboard. There was no more news of him.
Hussein Velana Manikfan hurried towards the palace because
the group supporting the young son had grown stronger. He
found he had lost power and all his property was confiscated.
He and his wife and children were exiled to Naifaru island.
Thinking that Fathmath Kabafan had control of the monarchy,
her relatives cooperated closely and humiliated the aristocracy
of the island. They decided to exile Mohamed Doshimeyna
Takurufan but he found out and his supporters came with
him to the palace and put him on the throne. He was called
Sultan Mohamed Imadudeen and his official title in Dhivehi
was Siri Kulasundura Siyaka Sasthura Maharadun.
King Imadudeen II, 1704-21
King Muzhirudeen's son and mother
were removed from the palace and the new king enthroned
on the night of 18 December 1704. Fenfushi Haji Ismail was
made the prime minister, and Eydhafushi Ali became foreign
minster. Moosa, the son of Dhigumaa Bandeyri Takurufan became
minister for health. Esa's son, Moosa Nasirudeen was made
An appropriate position was given to each person who had
supported the new king's bid for power. Among those who
supported the king was Umar Hafiz Muguree but there was
no position suitable for him so he became an advisor. Muraidhoo
Hasan kept the position of treasurer he had held under previous
Less than two weeks had passed before king Mohamed headed
off to Arabia in a rented ship from Surat. The ship was
stopping in Manadhoo lagoon when the king received news
that Doshimeyna Takurufan had taken over the throne. The
king returned to Male' intending to land there at night
but before his arrival, people in an odi from Kuredhivaru
island arrived at Male' and warned the new king that his
predecessor was returning.
The usurper ordered all of Male' to be on guard that night.
This was 1 January 1705 in the early part of the fasting
month of Ramazan. Odi rowed all around Male' and
the island was secured. The ousted king arrived and landed
on the western harbour wall but he left quickly when the
guards shouted. As he fled from Male', the new king sent
a very fast vessel that captured him near Makunudhoo island.
The captured king and his wife and son were brought to Male'
and exiled to Fua Mulaku. Hassan Tajudeen was sent to Gan
island, Hadunmathi atoll.
Ex-king Hassan was exiled to Hithadhoo on Addu atoll, and
he lived there in luxury. People travelling between the
island and Male' complained to king Mohamed about Hassan's
lifestyle so the monarch sent armed men with instructions
to keep Hassan under house arrest and limit his consumption
of sweet foods to a small amount each day.
Later in Male', a rumour spread that judge Moosa Nasirudeen
and Mohamed Kateeb Manik had held discussions and decided
to overthrow the king. This was investigated and substantiated
by evidence, so the judge was sent off to Maamakunudhoo
atoll. Kateeb Mohamed and his uncle Ahmed Ibrahim were sent
to Mulee island, Mulaku atoll. Hassan Tajudeen was brought
back and made the judge on the night of 15 February 1705.
Addu Umar Hafiz Muguree was made kateeb for helping
the king gain the throne.
Later, the treasurer Muraidhoo Hassan Kaleyge passed away,
and this same Umar Hafiz Muguree from Addu was made the
new treasurer. He was very pleased to accept the position
but afterwards he was harsh with people and lacked any compassion.
He had been a kateeb and memorised the Koran and
learnt religious knowledge, but when he became treasurer
he abandoned all he had learnt and immersed himself in material
wealth, exercising political power to the detriment of others.
Traders from India were especially intimidated. He disapproved
of people trading with anyone but himself. He bought things
in the name of the king at the low government price and
even then he was slow to pay. When he finally paid, the
amount was reduced by a sixth or an eighth. Powerless, people
complained to Almighty God.
the British and the Mogul king of India
After a short time, the ex-king
Muzhirudeen escaped from Fua Mulak with the help of a servant
in a small dhoani with a little food and water.
The servant went with him, but the winds were light as they
sailed slowly towards Galle in Sri Lanka and thhey arrived
in a desperate state. Muzhirudeen had nothing but a cloth
around his waist and a turban on his head, but people in
Galle treated him well, gave him things and provided him
with accommodation in a wealthy person's house where he
was treated with honour.
Muzhirudeen and his servant went to Chennai in a Dutch ship.
From there, he went to the fort to meet the British ruler
and ask for help. Muzhirudeen stayed in a house belonging
to a Moslem. The reigning king in Male' became very fearful
when he received this news about the old king. He was not
sure what Muzhirudeen was planning. The learned people of
Male' went to the tomb in Male' of the person who brought
Islam to Maldives, and prayed day and night that no harm
would come to the reigning king.
A person called Minicoy Haji Thakuru was sent in a ship
from Male' to deceive Muzhirudeen and bring him back. At
sea, he happened to meet Kungna Mohamed, the son of the
Ali Raja, in a ship from Cannanore. After hearing the story
from Haji Thakuru, Kungna agreed to join him and they travelled
to Chennai. Together they met Muzhirudeen and visited him
often. Muzhirudeen had been given great honours and security
guards by the British.
Kungna Mohamed and Haji Thakuru tricked Muzhirudeen. Taking
him secretly past the guards at midnight, they embarked
in a ship. When the guards checked next day, the nobleman
was missing and they ran down to the beach. Realising that
Kungna Mohamed's ship had gone, they set sail and chased
after them. However, the guards could reach the fleeing
vessel, and they returned empty-handed. The ship with Muzhirudeen
aboard went to Tangapatan (southeast along the coast from
modern Kollam in southern Kerala) where he was secretly
imprisoned in Kungna Mohamed's house.
French map of Travancore
region showing 'Tengapatnam' on the coast between
'Puduturey' and 'Injam'
Jean Anville 1752
from the David Rumsey collection
Kasim was sent to back to Maldives. He arrived in Male'
and told the king how the nobleman had been taken to Kunga
Mohamed's house in Tangapatan and was being held there.
Haji Kasim explained how Kungna Mohamed had spent fifty
gold coins from his own pocket during the capture of Muzhirudeen,
and he would only part with the nobleman when this expense
and a ransom was paid. The king consulted his advisors and
they all agreed to meet the demands and to send the money
with a letter. Treasurer Umar Hafiz Muguree refused to accept
the decision, but everyone else stayed quiet.
The king ordered an odi loaded with over one million
cowrie shells, placed Maruduru Malim in command and sent
it to Ali Raja in Cannanore. A letter accompanied the payment,
asking for the arrest of ex-king Muzhirudeen. When the odi
arrived, the shells were accepted from the captain by the
Ali Raja. Maruduru Malim returned to Male' and told the
king he had been met by a ship with armed forces sent by
the Ali Raja, and that soldiers had also chased him on land.
These were the lies. He didn't even bring a letter of reply
for the king.
At Tangapatan, Muzhirudeen heard
that a letter had been sent demanding his seizure and return
to Maldives. Secretly, he left that place accompanied by
his servant and at night they walked to Porto Novo (Mahmad
Bandar) in Tamil Nadu. The people there treated him
very well and he was given a few things. He sailed to Calcutta
(Huglee) in Hindustan where he met the British commander
at Ziyaudeen's house, told him what had happened and formally
asked for assistance.
Ziyaudeen sent a letter to Hindustan's Indian ruler, Farukshia,
who learnt that the Muzhirudeen had gone to haj
as the king and a member of his armed forces had usurped
his throne. The overthrown king was now requesting Faruk's
help, so he ordered that one hundred thousand rupees be
given to Muzhirudeen to enable him to recapture his crown.
French map of Porto
Novo area on Coromandel coast, giving dual name
for port as 'Mahmud Bender'
Jean Anville 1752
from the David Rumsey collection
very friendly with Muzhirudeen and helped him extensively.
A European called Dandaru Seytu was hired. He was very familiar
with the functioning of the fort, and was able to discuss
any matter with the governor. After a meeting, he agreed
to be in charge of the operation and with the governor's
help he procured two ships, a smaller boat, and soldiers,
weapons, and food and drink. During the voyage they were
hit by a storm and the vessels were separated. One went
to Galle. The other ship and the small boat with the Muzhirudeen
arrived at Male' harbour at the time of the Pleiades stars,
well after the usual sailing season had ended.
People from Male' saw the ships and informed the palace.
King Mohamed Imadudeen, judge Hassan Tajudeen, the official
Koran reciters, religious philosophers, ministers and gentry,
all went to the Central Tomb and prayed. Then they prepared
The ship was now close to Male'
and as it came within cannon range, firing began. The first
shot from Male' destroyed the vessel's flagpost. The ship
fired back at the island but without hitting even a coconut
palm or a tree. All the enemy's shots went over the island.
Guns were fired until sunset and darkness fell. Then the
invaders withdrew to Dhoonidhoo's reef, beyond the range
of cannon. This was Tuesday 11 May 1711, the seventh year
of the king's reign. Odi anchored outside the Male'
reef were robbed of their goods and the people enslaved.
One night, a small boat came up to an odi loaded
with export goods and secretly captured it. The rebels now
had three vessels, the two they arrived in and the odi
they had stolen.
From Dhoonidhoo reef, Muzhirudeen sent two vessels loaded
with weapons to the northern atolls to rob people there.
King Mohamed Imadudeen learnt of this and prepared two Male'
odi. They were also loaded with weapons and two
government ministers were placed in charge. Vilufushi Ali
Vazir commanded one odi, and Addu Hassan Vazir
the other. Without delay, these chiefs were given permission
to wage war and track down the raiders. The odi
sailed off and came upon the enemy in open sea. Vilufushi
Ali Vazir called out to Addu Hassan Vazir, asking him if
they should get closer to the two enemy odi and
fight them. Addu Hassan Vazir went silent, keeping his head
down, and then said he did not want to fight. Vilufushi
Ali turned his odi around and came back to Male'. The king
asked for news of what happened and Vilufushi Ali Vazir
said, 'If I had been accompanied by another commander like
myself, we would have returned after a battle.'
Addu Hassan Vazir was replaced with another Hassan Vazir.
This new commander was the son of Moosa, grandson of Ibrahim
and great grandson of Mulee Mohamed. The two odi
embarked again and came across the enemy as they sailed
through Maalhosmadulu atoll and into Miladhunmadulu atoll.
The raiders had landed and burnt some of the islands, murdering
people and stealing their property. When the infidel enemy
saw the sails of the Male' odi, they immediately
cast off from the island where they had moored. In their
haste, they left some of their men behind. The ships met
in the sea and guns were fired before the infidels sailed
back to Muzhirudeen at Dhoonidhoo in Male' atoll.
Meanwhile, Male' forces landed on the island where the infidels
had been moored and killed the stranded raiders. The stolen
goods were returned to the poor people they had been taken
from. Then the odi set sail for Male'. The two
commanders were greeted by the king and escorted through
the island with great honour.
When the infidels returned to Muzhirudeen at Dhoonidhoo,
he didn't speak to them for many days. He secretly sent
a Maldivian to relatives in Male' for discussions. After
the sun set, the Maldivian landed in Male' and told Muzhirudeen's
two siblings, his elder brother Hakura Manikfan and elder
sister Mava Kilege, that their brother needed their help.
These two met with some members of the army and convinced
them to join Muzhirudeen. All agreed to help seize the throne
and kill king Mohamed Imadhudheen. In the night, the two
messengers returned with a letter for Muzhirudeen. The letter
proposed a plan for Muzhirudeen's ship to come very close
to Male' and wait there: 'When you see a particular signal
from us in Male', then land quickly.'
The conspirators continued their preparations, assigning
people with a targets to kill. A government-owned negro
slave was delegated to kill the king. He was very strong
and a huge man. Another powerful negro, Marujaan who had
been freed by the Devadhoo king, was also asked for help.
They said to him, 'We have agreed that we shall kill the
king tonight and capture the throne. Negro Surooru will
put the king to death. Will you help him carry out this
Marujaan listened to all they said and went straight to
the king and warned him that the following night he would
be killed and the plotters were going to take over the throne.
The king quickly summoned all the gentry, ministers and
army. All were brought into his presence, except for two
people who swam out to the Muzhirudeen's ship.
The plotters were brought in and searched and asked about
their plans. From their own mouths, the conspirators admitted
everything was instigated by own elder brother Hakura Manikfan
and sister Mavaakilege.
The Ethiopian negro Surooru was executed along with three
others. The remaining plotters were chained at Male's crossroads,
and then sent to various islands. Mava Kilege was exiled
to her mother's island in Gan on Laam atoll. When they saw
how things were going, the men in the invading ships became
very frightened and promptly prepared to leave on 13 June
1711. They burnt the mosque at Viligili as they left and
then sailed to India where they waited until the following
On 17 February 1712, Moslems and infidels in two ships and
a boat came through Kalhi channel northeast of Male' and
anchored in the lagoon between Hulhule' and Dhoonidhoo islands.
Men landed at Funadhoo island with short fat mortars (naalhey).
The ammunition contained gunpowder and when it was fired,
the round exploded on impact and destroyed whatever was
nearby. They were lethal weapons. The invaders fired these
guns at night, from the time of the late evening prayer
until dawn. With the help of Holy God, Male' escaped any
damage, though the top of a tall coconut tree was hit by
a shot from those guns. At dawn, the guns stopped firing
and the enemy were quiet and could not be seen all day.
In the darkness at midnight, they landed near the harbour
wall on Male's western side armed with swords, guns, lances
and all manner of fighting weapons. The enemy also had ladders
made of timber. As they jumped into the water holding fuse
lights, guns were fired from Male'. As soon as they reached
the dry beach the invaders began to fire their muskets.
Shots from the guns were like rain and reached right inside
Last section of the
main bastion (now demolished) on Male', Maldives,
facing the northern harbour area
Source: NCLHR, Maldives
The Male' defenders
at the beach were defeated and most of them ran away until
only seven remained. Among those who stayed were Moosa Vazir
the son of Dhigumaabadeyri Takurufan, and Mathvaree Famuladeyri
Vazir. All seven were killed and the Male' people ran away
and lay low. The infidels came into the island with their
guns firing and drums beating. They burnt houses as they
advanced and reached the new gun-tower that had been commanded
by Hagura Manik. He had fled and concealed himself somewhere,
leaving behind his men and the gunpowder, ammunition and
other weapons. His men saw the island was deserted and thinking
the enemy had won, they lost the will to fight. As the enemy
advanced towards them, the men in the new gun tower ran
away to hide wherever they could. The men from the big fort's
gun tower ran away too and hid in the mosques. Except for
about twenty-five people, all the army and locals were in
The infidels were burning and firing their guns as they
came towards Maafaanu ward gate. Maldivians had already
shut the gate and secured it. They packed gunpowder and
small pieces of metal into a cannon and aimed it at the
invaders through a hole in the wall. The infidels reached
the gate and stopped just as the cannon was lit. Many men
were killed when hit by the metal from that cannon and many
others injured. The surviving infidels, including their
wounded, ran into the new gun tower and turned all its guns
onto the island and began to fire. Thanks to the divine
will of Holy God, the barrels of the guns were aimed too
high and none of the rounds hit anything. The invaders lit
a fire in front of the new gun tower and stayed there.
The king was very sad and worried when judge Hassan Tajudeen
came up and said, 'You should not sit here like this. Go
and do battle.'
Encouraged, Imadudeen emerged from the palace armed with
a sword and shield. He walked out from the Sakarangna
gate, and the judge approached him again and grabbed hold
of his hand, saying, 'It is not a good idea to go out to
them like this, your highness. Make the infidels come to
you instead. You should go back into the palace and beat
the drum of happiness so people will think you are winning.'
The drums were beaten as the judge advised, and people emerged.
They were ordered to arm themselves and chase the infidels
away. They obeyed and went off with their arms but soon
became frightened and retreated again. Ordered to attack
once more, they went off but returned in the same way. Now
the king was furious and he tried to go out and attack the
enemy himself. However, the judge stopped him and Umar Hafiz
Muguree the treasurer sent a group of militia to build another
gun tower in front of the one occupied by the enemy. Mattresses
of different kinds and other materials of that sort were
used as walls for the tower.
When it was built, the Maldivians began to fire their guns
and many infidels were killed. As the enemy's casualties
mounted, the survivors did not know how to escape and they
climbed onto the wall and jumped, splitting open their heads
and breaking their arms and legs. Crying, screaming and
shouting, they threw their guns and swords onto the beach
and plunged into the sea and climbed out on the harbour
wall. When their ship arrived to rescue them, Male' guns
began firing at the vessel. It was hit, but the ship got
back to Dhoonidhoo reef. A short time later, the invaders
left for Bengal. This was on Tuesday 23 February 1712 in
the eighth year of the king's reign.
It is said that Muzhirudeen ran way from the infidel British
and went to the ruler of Hindustan, Farukshia, and stayed
with that king for three years. After this, no reliable
news was heard about him.
In the second year of his reign, the king remarried Amina
Kabafan whom he had previously divorced. Amina Kabafan's
mother was Mariyam Kabafan, the daughter of Fenfushi Kuraha
Hassan Velana Kateeb. Amina Kabafan's father was Goidhoo
Ali Doshimeyna Takurufan. When the king married Amina Kabafan
for the second time, she was named Kabadi Kilegefan. Kabadi
Kilegefan gave birth to a son of the king, but a short time
later the child died. However, on the night of 11 September
1708, Kabadi Kilegefan gave birth to another son. This prince
was named Ibrahim.
On the 13 January 1712, Kabadi Kilegefan gave birth to a
daughter called Aishath Kabafan. On 14 January 1717, she
gave birth to another son named Ali.
When the elder son Ibrahim was seven years old, the king
summoned the ministers and gentry and received a promise
from them that Kabadi Kilegefan's son Ibrahim would succeed
him. After this, the king's elder wife, also called Amina,
felt that if the king died and her rival's elder son became
king, she and her friends would lose their influence.
At that time, the treasurer Umar Hafiz Muguree and this
Amina were very attracted to each other. They started a
secret friendship and then fell madly in love. They decided
that if the king died, the other wife's son should be removed
from the palace and not given the throne. Both of them deceived
the king, treating him kindly and carrying out his orders.
They hid expensive and high quality royal property and made
preparations to take over the monarchy if the king died.
The king himself was not aware of any of this. He believed
every word they said to him. They told lies to the king
and accused prince Ibrahim's friends of disloyalty. Believing
what he heard, the king removed many people from the positions
they had been given, and distanced himself from them.
Umar Hafiz's faction were telling the king they were truly
loyal. The positions lost by others were given to them and
in this way their supporters increased and the supporters
of the king's son decreased. Hassan Tajudeen did not join
Hafiz's faction and they were angry with him. They complained
to the king about Tajudeen and Hussein Afeefuddheen and
their friends and companions, and told the king these people
did not love him and that they were jealous. The king almost
began to believe what they said was true.
The intrigue continued for four years before the plot against
Ibrahim's succession, by Umar Hafiz and the king's elder
wife Amina, was exposed by Holy God. Umar Hafiz was exiled
to Fua Mulak, though he was kept in high honour and provided
with food and drink. While he was there, his enemies in
Male', Ismail Vazir, Hura Daharada Vazir, Mish-Keelu Kaloa
and Ibrahim's mother's financial advisor Abu Bakuru, all
confirmed that the king's elder wife had flirted with Umar
Hafiz and was friendly with him.
When the king heard this evidence,he became furious. Powerful
and cruel soldiers were sent to Fua Mulak and they punished
Umar Hafiz, beating him unconscious. They pummelled him
until he was just a pool of blood and then returned to Male'.
The people from Fua Mulaku treated him with medicine and
he recovered but with very large scars. Umar Hafiz was officially
exiled on 8 February 1716. He no longer received enough
food and had to live in a house with no light at night.
After ten months, Hassan Tajudeen appealed for mercy on
his behalf and an order was made that all nobles in exile
were to be treated properly. The people of Fua Mulaku began
to respect Umar Hafiz and treat him properly.
A year and four months later, the king's elder wife was
taken ill with an ailment that worsened each day. The king
was also seriously ill and people began to think he would
not recover. Male' islanders were divided into two factions.
One group was led by Hussein Velana Manikfan, the maternal
brother of Mizhirudeen. Fenfushi Ismail Doshimeyna Takurufan
headed the other group. Each faction was ready to install
its leader as king, but meanwhile the king's health improved.
Hussein Velana approached the king and said, 'Fenfushi Ismail
Doshimeyna Takurufan and his followers are ready to take
over the throne.'
The king immediately exiled Fenfushi Ismail Doshimeyna and
his family to Fenfushi island. His son-in-law Hura Hussein
Dahara Vazir was exiled to Havaru Thinadhoo and Ali Dahara
Vazir was exiled to Gan island on Hadunmathi atoll. These
things occurred on 20 October 1717.
A short time later, the king's elder wife Kabadi Kilegefan
died on Wednesday 10 November 1717. She was buried in a
tomb built for her on the western side of the Friday mosque.
The king recovered from his illness.
During this king's reign, new customs were established:
Isha prayer time was set at one hour and twenty
minutes after sunset. Hassan Tajudeen was instructed to
make observations by going to the beach in the cool and
hot seasons, and precisely measuring the time with an hour-glass.
First, the hour-glass was assembled, and then kept on an
areca palm bench in front of the clerk's bench in the palace.
Hassan Tajudeen was instructed to turn over the hour-glass
at sunset. This was done in March 1707. Previously, Maldivians
would perform the isha prayer one hour after sunset.
The recitation of the salwat, 'Praise for Allah,
His Prophet and his disciples', began to be recited from
the minaret each Friday before noon. That was on the advice
of Hassan Tajudeen and it began in May 1711.
At the suggestion of Hassan Tajudeen, the call to prayer
was made from the minaret for the first time. The isha
prayer time and the exact moment of dawn were also checked
and announced by Hassan Tajudeen. The first call to prayer
was to be done when Venus was in the tenth degree; then
after Venus rose, there was the second call to prayer. In
most seasons, there is 25 degrees between the rise of Venus
and sunrise. Before this change, Maldivians had performed
the prayer before dawn, making the call for prayer an hour
Acts not acceptable to Islam were also banned. Maldivians
used to gather in a maulood hall, bringing flowers
of pandanus, unimaa and henna, along with stone
apples, sliced sugar beet, pomegranates, bananas, citrus
and sticky rice and many other things like that. It was
all heaped into the middle of the maulood hall,
and people would sit around and stay awake all night. This
practice was banned 1705/6 at the request of Hassan Tajudeen.
The custom of cooking and distributing creamy rice soup
on Ashoora day was also banned. It had been a time
when the aristocrats visited each other's houses, the middle-classes
met in the same way, and the common people also called on
one another. This had been made a custom on the day the
noble Hussein had died, but in 1708/9, it was forbidden.
Many fires occurred in this king's reign, including a blaze
in the upper floor of a high stone house on Friday 19 January
1714. Another two-storey house built of timber was burnt
on 18 May.
All the buildings were burnt on the northern side of the
road between the Loajehi palace and Ranjehi
palace. That was in 1717. Other places in the Henveiru ward
were also burnt. The area between king Dhanna Mohamed's
mosque and the treasurer's house went up, and south of there
the Kabafan's palace caught fire along with many buildings
on its western side. The house of Yagooth Kalege's daughter
Aminath and other dwellings were destroyed. Many houses
were also incinerated on the eastern side of the palace
of the king's wife Kabadi Kilegefan. This all happened on
the 7 May 1717.
In the last part of his reign, the king became a man who
lacked compassion and had little respect for people. Property
was looted, inheritances cancelled and extra demands were
placed on people. People were told to cook builders' lime
and bring it to the king, and they were ordered to do many
things without payment such as cutting wood, and breaking
and collecting flat corals. Everything had to be brought
to the king.
The military was also given heavy labour, and told to build
forts, erect walls and reinforce other buildings. Although
these things were done, attacks from the enemy did not stop.
The king married Aishath Kamanaa, the daughter of Kuda Haji
from the armed forces. This girl was only a young child
and she was kept in a separate house. The king stayed with
her most of the time.
During his later years, he never listened to anyone's complaints
and never checked on people's welfare. The king distanced
himself from his people and it seemed that the rules governing
a leader's behaviour, which were laid down by the Holy Prophet,
were forgotten. The king passed away on Wednesday 22 October
1721 at the age of sixty-two. Hassan Tajudeen composed a
poem and inscribed it on the wall of the king's tomb with
the date of his death included. He had reigned for 17 years
four months and eight days, and his son Ibrahim was made
the new king on Thursday 23 October 1721.