Dom Maraduru Fandiaiy Kaleygefan was the son of Dom Luis
de Sousa, son of Dona Inês. She was the daughter of King
Dom João and Dona Francisca Vasconcellos. Dom João was the
son of Dom Manoel.
King Manoel was the son of Omar Maafaiy Kilege and Golaavahi
Aysha Rani Kilege. Omar Maafaiy Kilege was the son of the
Siri Dhammaru Bavana (Sultan
Mohamed the Black, reigned 1492 - 93; 1494 - 1510 and 1512
- 1529) and Princess Burecca (According to the Raadavali
Omar Maafaiy Kilege's mother was Aysha Kilege, daughter
of Korari Kinage.). King
Siri Dhammaru Bavana was
the son of King
Siri Loka Sundhura (Sultan
Omar, reigned 1480 - 85) and Sitti Rani Kilege who was the
younger sister of Sultan Abubakur I. Burecca was the daughter
of Recca, daughter of King
Siri Bavana Sooja (Sultan
Abubakur I, reigned 1442 - 43) and Reccy Kamana of Kandudu.
Siri Bavana Sooja was the son of King Siri Bavana (Hilaaly
Sultan Hassan I) and half brother of King Siri Loka Ananda.
Burecca's father was Himithy Shipwright's son (Maavadi Koi).
Siri Loka Sundhura
was the son of King Siri Loka Ananda
(reigned 1420 - 42) and Talamedi Kilege. King Siri Loka
was the son of King Siri Bavana (reigned 1388 - 98). King
Siri Bavana was the son of Kulhiveri Hilaal Kaiulhanna Kaloge
(the legendary Hilaaly Kalo) and Golaavahi Kambulo. Hilaaly
Kalo was the son of Muslim Abbas of Hilaaly, an immigrant
Maraduru Fandiaiy Kaleygefan’s son was Hussain Daharada
Kaleygefan whose son was Mohamed Faamuladeyri Thakurufan.
Mohamed Faamuladeyri Thakurufan married Aminah Dio, daughter
of Mohamed, kateeb of Muli. Their son was Huraagey Dom Hassan
Dom Hassan Maniku, a great-great grandson of Dom Luis was
a junior officer in the armed service of King
Siri Kula Sundhura Siyaaka Sasthura (Sultan
Mohamed Imaduddine II) of the Diyamigily Dynasty.
of Arms of a 20th Century Ali Raja of Cannanore
The South Asian Subcontinent's only independent state
with a Muslim dynasty was the House of Arakkal. The
Arakkals gained prominence in the16th century
at the expense of the neigbouring Hindu Chrikkal dynasty.
The Arakkals allowed female succession and their most
prominent ruler was a queen, Junummabe Ali Raja Bibi
who ruled for 49 years. The Ali Rajas clashed with
the Portuguese, the Dutch, the British and the Mogals
for supremacy. They eventually formed an alliance
with the Mogal governor of Seringapattam, Tippu Khan
Bahadur. Just before Tippu was defeated by the British,
the Ali Raja made peace with the British and became
a British tributary. By 1909 the British had reduced
the Ali Raja to an insignificant vassal without any
real power. The last Arakkal ruler was Mariummabe
Ali Raja Bibi. She was deposed and her territories
were annexed by India in 1948.
that time one Kuñhi Amsa Ali-adi Raja ruled the small
southern Indian principality of Cannanore. He was one of
a dynasty of Ali Rajas (literally sea kings) and Ali Raja-bibis
(Lady Ali Rajas) who continued to rule in a so-called princely
state until the British left India in 1948.
Maldivians referred to the people of Cannanore and other
Malayalam-speaking Indians as Holin. This word was
probably derived from Chola, a warlike Indian nationality
of a previous age. The Ali Raja of Cannanore was also ruler
over the Laccadive Islands to the north of the Maldives.
For over a century the Ali Rajas had been trying to conquer
the Maldives. Their raids had ceased for many years after
King Siri Kula Rnmeeba Katthiri Bavana (Sultan Iskander
Ibrahim I) of the Uteem Dynasty sent a Maldivian fleet to
the Laccadives and defeated the Cannanore fleet based there.
Laccadives were then annexed in the name of the King of
the Maldives and its chieftains ordered to pay the princely
sum of 12 laris per year (at 2001 exchange rates about 2
New Zealand cents) in recognition of this. During the
latter years of the Diyamigily Dynasty, the Cannanorese
raids into the Maldives increased in frequency. The Laccadive
Islands had long since lapsed back into Holin rule; the
local population being Malayalam-speaking Moslem Holin themselves.
One of these raids was successful
in breaking through Malé’s defences and abducting
the King Siri Navaranna Keerithi (Sultan Mukarram Mohamed
Imaduddine III), in collaboration with the chief justice
and his brother to whom the Holin promised their governorship
in the Maldives. These two were both brothers-in-law of
the Sultan's. They were the Chief Justice Mohamed Shamsuddine,
and his brother Ahmed Mohyeddine, Kateeb of Malé.
They were both sons of the Tarikh chronicler and
Chief Justice, Hassan Tajuddine.
raiders took the Sultan off to Kavaraddu (Kavaratti) in
the Laccadive Islands. Subsequently the chief justice and
his brother were executed by the Holin; saying that they
could not trust anyone who was disloyal to their own sovereign.
The Ali Raja then set up an administration in Malé
under a collector called kanaka pillay. (Kanaka pillay
seems to be a title, rather than a name. Maldivians referred
to him as Kanakkafoolhu). They appointed as chief
justice, Kateeb Mohamed Muhibbuddine son of Hussain Afifuddine,
brother of the Chronicler and chief justice Hassan Tajuddine.
Holin rule lasted barely four months. Evidently, the Holin
garrison relaxed their defences at their headquarters at
Veyodorhu Ganduvaru, after the Munaaja call, a prayer recited
about two hours before the dawn call to prayers, by a muezzin
from atop the minaret of the Hukuru Miskit (Friday Mosque).
Huraagey Dom Hassan Maniku and a group of followers found
this out, and one night, persuaded the muezzin of the Hukuru
Miskit to recite the Munaaja earlier than usual. Dom Hassan
Maniku's principal followers were:
Hassan Hirihamaanthi Kaleygefan, commander of a lance
Gadahamaanthi Manikfan son of Mohamed Gadahamaanthi Kaleygefan
son of Handeygiri Kaleygefan of Nolivaranfaru,
Bandeyri Fandiaiy Thakurufan
Maniku, brother of the above Meynaa Bandeyri Fandiaiy
followers numbered about two hundred, according to the Tarikh
able-bodied and fearless, people. As expected, the Holin
went to sleep early that night, and Dom Hassan Maniku and
his followers stole into Veyodorhu Ganduvaru and put the
kanaka pillay and his Holin to the sword.
few Holin who managed to escape were pursued and found hiding
in various parts of Malé or in vessels in the harbour.
They were arrested and executed by drowning. Two Maldivian
lives were lost in this operation; one was shot and a sword
wielding Holin named Seykutty Haji killed the other.
Hassan Maniku lost his left thumb . Upon accession to the
throne, some years later, Dom Hassan Maniku used a white
kerchief to cover the stump of his missing thumb when he
went forth in State. The kerchief was held in place with
the right hand and both hands were raised up to just below
chest-level. His royal descendants continued this tradition
when walking in procession until it was abolished in the
reign of King Siri Kula Sudha Ira Siyaaka Saasthura Audha
Keerithi Bovana (Sultan Hassan Nooreddine II) in 1934.
news of the fall of Malé reached Cannanore, Ali Raja
sent his agents to Kavaratti to gore out the abducted King’s
eyes and to remove him to the Indian mainland. The King's
nephew Mohamed Manikfan remained in detention in the Laccadive
Island of Androt. An expedition of Indians was promptly
dispatched to Malé to restore Holin rule.
Hassan Maniku's brother Hussain Maniku, who was abducted
with the King, was brought as their guide. Dom Hassan Maniku
was alert to this. When the invading vessels were sighted,
he ordered the Cannanore flag to be hoisted up the flag-staff
atop the Main Fort Bastion (Bodu Kottey Buruzu), one of
many bastions that lined the city wall of old Malé,
built in the heyday of the Uteem Dynasty. He also ordered
his men to change into Cannanore costume and to let the
vessels enter the inner harbour. When the whole fleet was
inside the breakwater, the gate-blocks of the entrances
to the inner harbour were lowered. The vessels were then
boarded and the crews were either killed or captured by
Holin-attired Maldivians whom the crews mistook for their
Holin continued to try to regain control of the Maldives,
by sending out several raiding parties, and establishing
a garrison up in the North. In a bid to rid the Maldives
of the Holin, Dom Hassan Maniku, (then, Hassan Rannabandeyri
Manikfan) sent a junior minister as an ambassador to the
French territory of Pondicherry in India seeking French
a result, the French governor Dupleix seconded a Corps
du Garde to Malé in 1756. It was made clear that
the Corps du Garde was to be under the jurisdiction
and in the payroll of the Princess Regent of the Maldives.
When the ambassador sent to Governor Dupleix returned with
the Corps du Garde in four French vessels, a Holin
fleet of three vessels was moored in Dunidoo Harbour across
from Malé. The Holin were virtually besieging Malé,
but were unable to penetrate the defences of the island.
Corps du Garde attacked the Holin and sunk one of
their vessels. The other two vessels escaped and sailed
to the island of Donakulhi in the North where the Holin
had established a base. Dom Hassan Maniku sailed to Donakulhi
with the Corps du Garde where the Holin garrison
was sacked and their men were either captured or killed.
The Battle of Donakulhi having won Dom Hassan Maniku commanded
the fleet of Maldivian and French vessels back to Malé
on 21 April 1756.
French Corps du Garde was stationed at Naaney Bastion
along the northern waterfront. This arrangement was terminated
in 1759, when a group of the Frenchmen had a brawl with
a group of Maldivians, resulting in deaths. De Lally, Dupleix's
successor in Pondicherry, relieved the Corps du Garde.
Until recently the lane next to the Bastion was called Faranji-kalo
Goali (European-man Lane). The French were paid for their
services with a large lump of ambergris weighing 153.1 kg
according to the Tarikh.
few years later, news reached Malé of the death of
King Siri Navaranna Keerithi (Sultan Mukarram Mohamed Imaduddine
III) in Cannanore. Dom Hassan Maniku, as Prime Minister
was then effectively ruling the Maldives, with two Diyamigily
princesses, in turn, as Princess Regent. Firstly, Aminah Rani Kilege,
daughter of King Siri Rannava Loka (Ibrahim Iskander II)
and, after her self-imposed exile to Addu Atoll, her niece,
Aminah Rani Kilege, daughter of King Siri Navaranna Keerithi.
Tarikh records two versions as the reason for the
elder Aminah Rani Kilege's self-imposed exile. According
to the Maldivian language version of the Tarikh,
her husband Ali Dorhimeyna harboured designs on the throne,
and intended to displace Dom Hassan Maniku from the premiership.
The Arabic language version records that she and her husband
fled in order to default on their financial debts owed to
the French merchant Monsieur Le Termellier.
Addu Atoll they tried to flee to the territories of the
Ali Raja of Cannanore, but were intercepted by an armed
vessel sent from Malé as they were about to enter
the Ali Raja's waters. They were brought back to Malé
and exiled to Fenfurhi. Her cousin-in-law Ahmed Thakurufan
escaped and for years returned regularly with raiding parties
sent by the Ali Raja.
another plot to displace Dom Hassan Maniku was uncovered.
Hussain Gadahamaanthi, husband of Diyamigily Fatima Rani
Kilege, another of the Princess Regent's aunts, led this
plot. The couple was banished to Kalhifurhi and remained
there for two years until pardoned by Dom Hassan Maniku
as Sultan. The regency was proving to be unsustainable as
the Diyamigily womens' husbands jostled for power.
leading citizens then asked Dom Hassan Maniku to ascend
the throne in his own right but he kept refusing the offer.
A deputation went to Muleege, Dom Hassan Maniku’s residence
repeatedly, offering the throne, and with much reluctance
he accepted the offer on condition that the throne revert
to the Diyamigily Dynasty after his death. Such was Dom
Hassan Maniku’s loyalty, and that of his father before him,
to the Diyamigilys. If there was anyone who became king,
queen, sultan, sultana or president of the republic, who
was not keen on his or her position, then it must surely
have been Huraagey Dom Hassan Maniku.
Dom Hassan Maniku was installed as king in a makeshift building
erected on the site of the palace complex destroyed by the
Holin. This took place on Friday December 7th,
1759. As monarch, he was known as King Siri Kularanmeeba
Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bavana (Hassan Izzuddine, with the
additional title of al-Ghazi or warlord). He as commonly
called Donbandaarain. Thus began the Huraagey Dynasty. Perhaps
one could say that the Hilaaly Dynasty was restored yet
had motivated Huraagey Dom Hassan Maniku, a young junior
officer aged 25, to launch that operation against the invading
Holin? Was it because his father and many of his relatives
were abducted with the Sultan by the Holin? - Perhaps so.
However many commentators maintain that he did what he had
done because of his background. He was a member of the Hilaaly
dynasty through the line of the Christian kings.
named as his successor, the late Diyamigily King’s nephew,
Mohamed Manikfan, when the latter returned from India, after
fleeing from his captors. He was one of those who were abducted
with the late Sultan.
Manikfan reputedly had an ill temper. In a fit of rage he
stabbed a man named Ibrahim Didi who, for some reason had
displeased him. The man survived the assault and for his
misfortune, was nicknamed Keehi (stabbed) Ibrahim Didi.
reprimanded Mohamed Manikfan for what he had done. With
a hurt ego he vowed revenge. The king, however, took no
further action. When Huraagey King Siri Kularanmeeba Audha
Keerithi Katthiri Bavana (Donbandaarain) died, this Diyamigily
prince, as King Siri Kula Ranmani Keerithi (Sultan Mohamed
Ghiyathuddine) succeeded him.
his deathbed Donbandaarain was supposed to have said to
Mohamed Manikfan, "I commit the kingdom of the Maldives
to the care of Your Highness, and I commit my children to
the care of the Almighty". Donbandaarain died on Monday
21 July 1766, aged 35.
rumours in Malé of a plot among some ministers to
depose Ghiyathuddine in favour of Hassan Izzuddine’s eldest
son, Mohamed, the new Diyamigily King ordered a purge of
the Malé elite. Most of the surviving colleagues
of Donbandaarain were banished.
former King’s widow Fenfurhy Aminah Dio also known as Kakaagey
Bodu Didi and their three children Mohamed (aged 14); Ibrahim
(aged 8) and Ali (aged 4) were sent to Fenfurhi in Ari Atoll
in the west. Bodu Didi's father Ali Kakaa Thakurufan
was from that island. Three of the alleged conspirators
escaped on their way to exile and fled to the Dutch-ruled
island of Ceylon. They were all brothers of Princess Aminah
(Bodu Didi). Ghiyathuddine appealed to the Dutch governor
in Colombo seeking their extradition, but by then they had
fled Ceylon to Chandarnagarh in India.
such close relations of the late King’s widow and children
at large in foreign lands, Ghiyathuddine became very insecure
(a very common sentiment displayed in similar circumstances
by the rulers of the Maldives). He therefore banished them
from Fenfurhi to Hithadu in Addu Atoll.
also sent orders to the locals forbidding them from helping
the young princes and their mother. As a result, they were
reduced to a life of starvation and destitution and lived
as vagrants. Such was Ghiyathuddine's gratitude to Donbandaarain
for his unselfish loyalty to the Diyamigilys.
current official version
is that Ghiyathuddine was quote "denied
the opportunity of reciprocating the same sentiments to
the Huraage family"
unquote. Could this be a classic case of transferring blame
to victims? In this case the victims were a young widow
and her three very young children.
years later, Ghiyathuddine gathered enough confidence to
make a trip to Mecca to attend the hajj pilgrimage. He appointed
his sister Princess Aminah, daughter of Diyamigily King
Siri Rannava Loka as Princess Regent. She was the one who
fled to Addu Atoll relinquishing the same position under
Dom Hassan Maniku.
after the Sultan left Malé , the Princess Regent’s
husband, in collaboration with his wife attempted to seize
the throne for himself. He was Ali Velaanaa Thakurufan son
of Mohamed Dorhimeyna Thakurufan son of Mohamed Kuda Bandeyri
Thakurufan of Addu. The militia rebelled and soon surrounded
the palace complex.
the guns atop the New Fort Bastion inside the palace complex
trained on their apartments, the Regent and her husband
were ordered to leave the premises through the southern
service-entrance and proceed to the waterfront. There, they
were put on an odi about to sail for Huliyandu in Haddummati
Atoll in the South. The militia formally deposed Ghiyathuddine
from the throne in favour of Mohamed Manikfan, son of Hussain
Dorhimeyna Kilegefan who was the brother of Hassan Izzuddine.
Mohamed Manikfan’s mother was Zuleikha Dio. He was installed
under the name of Mohamed Shamsuddine II Iskander.
Mohamed Shamsuddine II Iskander sent word to Addu Atoll
and brought the three exiled princes and their mother back
to Malé . When they arrived he abdicated in favour
of the eldest who was installed on the throne as King-Sultan
Mohamed Muizzuddine. When Ghiyathuddine returned from hajj,
he was detained on board his ship, off the island of Guraidu.
In a letter to the Sultan, he relinquished all claims to
the throne and pleaded to be allowed to live in Malé
as a private citizen.
was said that the following night a party of men boarded
his vessel and sailed it out into the high seas where Ghiyathuddine
was murdered by drowning. His son Abdulla was banished to
Fua Mulak in the south. Many years later he was raised to
the title of Faamuladeyri Kilege. He or his direct descendants
never challenged the authority of the Huraagey sultans and
continued to live in Fua Mulak, where their line remains
to this day. However they were not permitted even to visit
Malé until the reign of Sultan Mohamed Shamsuddine
III, early in the twentieth Century.
daughter, Kakaagey Kalu Goma, also known as Aysha Rani Kilegefan
survived Muizzuddine. He was, succeeded by his youngest
brother Ali, under the name of Hassan Nooreddine I. In the
twentieth year of his reign, Hassan Nooreddine I went to
hajj with over 300 people in a richly laden and well-armed
fleet of ships. Ghalib son of Musaed son of Masood, Shareef
of Mecca had a disagreement with the Sultan and seized most
of his property, including the ships. The Shareef was interested
in acquiring the canons aboard the Sultan's ships in order
to wage war against the Ottomans.
in Jeddah, the Sultan and his entourage were hit by an epidemic
of smallpox in which 230 Maldivians died. Among them were
the Sultan, his eldest son Abdul Hameed, daughter Fatima,
and Prime Minister, Mohamed Handeygirin. Hassan Nooreddine’s
second son Mohamed Mueenuddine I, who remained behind in
Malé as Prince Regent, succeeded him.
Kalu Goma daughter of King-Sultan Mohamed Muizzuddine married
Eduru Ibrahim Rannabandeyri Thakurufan, the master of a
martial arts training regiment.
Ibrahim Rannabandeyri Thakurufan carried the appellation
of Thakurufan because of his low ranking birth (see
the section on Ancient
Offices). However because he married a sultan's daughter,
he was later called Rannabandeyri Manikfan.
names Kakaage and Kakaagey (of Kakaage)
were derived from the fact that Kalu
Goma's grandmother was Fenfushy Aminah Bodu Didi who was
the consort of Donbandaarain. Bodu Didi was the daughter
of Fenfurhy Ali Kakaa Thakurufan. When Kalu Goma's
father, King-Sultan Mohamed Muizzuddine died she was 3 years
old. It was her grandmother Bodu Didi who looked after her
at the latter's residence which was by then called Kakaage,
which was at the site of the old power house between Kalu
Thukkalaa Magu and Faarhanaa Kilege Magu in Male.
Goma had five children, they were: Ali Rannabandeyri Kilegefan
(died 1873), Ahmed Manikfan (died 1834), Hawwa Didi (died
1829), Khadijah Didi (died 1837) and Sanfa Didi (died 1843).
Kakaagey Kalu Goma and Eduru Ibrahim Rannabandeyri Manikfan
were the progenitors of the Kakaagey (Divehi Ganduvaru)
family, one of the leading families in Malé and the
leading family in Minicoy to this day. My wife Antu is a
descendant of the Kakaagey family on her father's side.
Family history and table