Maldives Minicoy Mahl Dhivehi
Small states with multi-party democracies

First Political Party in the Maldives

The Maldives had a political party in the early 1950's, leading up to and during the period of the first republic (1953 - 1954). The name of the party was the "Rayyitunge Mutagaddim Paatee" which loosely translates as the "People's Progressive Party".

The polulation of the Maldives at that time was about 60,000.

It is not understood that there was any movement to re-establish a political party until 2000. That bid was stopped by resolution of the People's Majlis (parliament) which is made up exclusively of deputies who support the ruling regime.

Many of the deputies of the Maldive parliament have paid positions in the administrative sector of the regime. Others are under oath, in other capacities, to be loyal to the leader of the regime.

The Maldive regime's main arguement against allowing political parties was that they were not practicable in a country with a population of just over 300,000. Another argument was that a party was a social event meant to serve tea and other refreshments. This was according to the then minister in charge of incorporating societies.

(This minister is a well-meaning, hard working honest, fair and likeable individual. He is a disciplinarian who was in charge of discipline in the main boy's school in Malé in the 1960's. Most of his ministerial colleagues and the senior officer corps of the National Security Service grew up lining up to his orders. Boys were told to look at the back of the head of the boy standing in front of them- "konmme kujjakuves balaanee kuriyah hunna kujjaage boluge fuhkiba". The idea was to get the line straight. By disallowing the political party, he was instinctively getting people into line)

Recently held Maldive elections have always been pronounced as fair by scrutineers from fellow member countries of the South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) who do not speak the local language called Divehi. It is not understood that candidates are able to appoint their own scrutineers as in civilised democracies such as New Zealand.


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Andorra

Population: 67,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal d'Andorra) or PLA [Marc FORNE]
  • Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]
  • National Democratic Group or AND [Ladislau BARO SOLA]
  • National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc MATEU ZAMORA]
  • New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU CASSANY]
  • Unio Parroquial d'Ordino or UPO [Simo DURO COMA]

Note: there are two other small parties

Aruba

Population: 70,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]
  • Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]
  • Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]
  • Aruban People's Party or AVP [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]
  • Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS [leader NA]
  • Democratic Action '86 or AD '86 [Arturo ODUBER]
  • Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson ODUBER]
  • Electoral People's Movement or MEP [Betico CROES]
  • For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [Urbana LOPEZ]
  • National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]
  • New Patriotic Party or PPN [Eddy WERLEMEN]

Bahamas

Population: 300,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM]
  • Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]

Bermuda

Population: 63,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • National Liberal Party or NLP [Charles JEFFERS]
  • Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]
  • United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela GORDON]

Cook Islands

Population 21,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Cook Islands Party or CIP [Joe WILLIAMS]
  • Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Terepai MAOATE]
  • New Alliance Party or NAP [leader NA]

Leichtenstein

Population: 33,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Fatherland Union or VU [Dr. Oswald KRANZ]
  • Progressive Citizens' Party or FBPL [Norbert SEEGER]
  • The Free List or FL [Christel HILTI, Hansjorg HILTI, Helen MARXER, Hugo RISCH, Margrit WILLE]

Malta

Population: 400,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance for Social Justice or AD [Harry VASSALLO]
  • Malta Labor Party or MLP [Alfred SANT]
  • Nationalist Party or PN [Edward FENECH ADAMI]

Mauritius

Population: 1,180,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Hizbullah [Cehl Mohamed FAKEEMEEAH]
  • Mauritian Labour Party or MLP [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM] - governing party
  • Mauritian Militant Movement or MMM [Paul BERENGER]
  • Mauritian Militant Renaissance or MMR [Dr. Paramhansa NABABSING]
  • Mauritian Social Democrat Party or PMSD [Xavier-Luc DUVAL]
  • Militant Socialist Movement or MSM [Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH]
  • Organization of the People of Rodrigues or OPR [Louis Serge CLAIR]; Rodrigues Movement [Nicholas Von MALLY]

Montserrat

Population: 6000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Movement for National Reconstruction or MNR [Percival Austin BRAMBLE]
  • National Development Party or NDP [leader NA]
  • National Progressive Party or NPP [Reuben T. MEADE]
  • People's Progressive Alliance or PPA [Bertrand OSBORNE]

Samoa

Population: 180,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [TUILA'EPA Sailele Malielegaoi, chairman]
  • Samoa All People's Party or SAPP [Matatumua MAIMOAGA]
  • Samoan National Development Party or SNDP [TAPUA Tamasese Efi, chairman] (opposition)
  • Samoan Progressive nservative Party [LEOTA Ituau Ale]

Saint Lucia

Population: 157,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • National Freedom Party or NFP [Martinus FRANCOIS]
  • Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Kenneth ANTHONY]
  • United Workers Party or UWP [leader NA]

San Marino

Population: 26,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Communist Refoundation or RC [Giuseppe AMICHI]
  • Democratic Movement or MD [Emilio DELLA BALDA]
  • San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Cesare Antonio GASPERONI, secretary general]
  • San Marino Popular Democratic Party or APDS [Antonella MULARONI]
  • San Marino Progressive Democratic Party or PPDS [Stefano MACINA, secretary general]
  • San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Maurizio RATTINI, secretary general]
  • Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]

Seychelles

Population: 80,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Democratic Party or DP [leader NA]
  • New Democratic Party [Christopher GILL (former member of DP)]
  • Seychelles People's Progressive Front or SPPF [France Albert RENE] - the governing party
  • United Opposition or UO [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] - a coalition of the following parties:
    • Seychelles Party or PS [Wavel RAMKALAWAN]
    • Seychelles Democratic Movement or MSPD [Jacques HONDOUL]
    • Seychelles Liberal Party or SLP [Ogilvie BERLOUIS]

Vanuatu

Population: 190,000

Political parties and leaders:

  • Friend Melanesian Party [Albert RAVUTIA]
  • John Frum Movement [leader NA]
  • Melanesian Progressive Party or MPP [Barak SOPE]
  • Na-Griamel Movement [Frankie STEVENS]
  • National United Party or NUP [Willie TITONGOA]
  • Tan Union or TU [Vincent BOULEKONE]
  • Union of Moderate Parties or UMP [Serge VOHOR]
  • Vanuatu Party or VP [Donald KALPOKAS]
  • Vanuatu Republican Party [Maxime Carlot KORMAN]
                  
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